Modern methods of varicose vein treatment of the lower extremities provide high efficiency with minimal interference in the body system. Those skilled in the art will use conservative therapy, minimally invasive procedures, and complex treatment using multiple methods. The treatment regimen for varicose veins is selected by a phlebologist. It assesses the condition of the veins, determines the stage of the disease and takes into account the presence of concomitant diseases.
Varicose veins in the early stages respond well to conservative treatment, but only in the absence of complications and severe external manifestations. In the later stages, drugs are prescribed for complex and postoperative therapy. Medication involves the use of forms for external and internal use. Modern anti-varicose drugs can be divided into several groups.
Venotonics and phleboprotectors
These are drugs that affect the tone of the blood vessel wall and normalize blood circulation.
The formulations are based on different active ingredients, but have the same therapeutic effect. Venotonics rapidly penetrate the venous wall and accumulate in sufficient therapeutic doses.
Devices for reducing blood viscosity
Treatment of varicose veins by modern methods is impossible without the use of anticoagulants. They dilute the blood, prevent blood vessel congestion and normalize microcirculation.
Antithrombotic drugs have many contraindications and side effects. Consult your doctor before use.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
These drugs are used for thrombophlebitis, pain syndrome, and swelling. They quickly relieve inflammation and reduce the external manifestations of chronic vascular insufficiency.
Non-steroidal drugs often cause digestive side effects. Tablet forms should be taken strictly after or during a meal.
Minimally invasive procedures
Non-surgical treatment of leg varicose veins involves not only drug therapy but also mechanical methods to eliminate the pathology. They are called minimally invasive interventions. It is a type of mini surgery that does not require hospital treatment and is performed without deep incisions and anesthesia.
Such techniques are popular with patients because of their lack of long-term rehabilitation and the ability to interrupt work. It is shown at any stage of the varicose veins. But the effect of treatment lasts longer with early intervention. Phlebology clinics offer four main methods of non-surgical treatment:
- laser therapy;
- sclerotherapy with occlusion of the lumen of the vessel;
- radiofrequency ablation;
All methods are based on stopping the flow of blood through the abnormal vein by closing or removing it.
Methods of treating varicose veins on the legs using laser light make it possible to remove dilated veins in the legs without incision and rough scars. The method is suitable for all ages and, in the absence of contraindications, is used at all stages of treatment.
The essence of the method
Laser coagulation of blood vessels ensures hardening of diseased veins and complete cessation of blood flow in them. The principle of effect is the effect of heat on the venous wall.
A special laser light guide moving along the vessel causes the shells to stick. As a result, the affected area is disconnected from the general circulation. The length of the laser beam is carefully calculated. This prevents the adjacent tissue from burning.
Progress of the procedure
The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis with ultrasound guidance. The patient is treated with a foot disinfectant, local anesthesia is performed, and a small puncture is made in the area of the onset of the affected vein that is predicted. A thin light-conducting probe is inserted through the hole. It advances to the end of the abnormal area, then connects the laser and retracts the catheter. However, it has a thermal effect on the vascular tissue and they stick together.
The operation takes about half an hour. After finishing, compression stockings are placed on the legs. We recommend that you stay in the clinic for an additional 30 minutes, constantly moving. This ensures normalization of blood circulation and identification of possible complications.
Key benefits and efficiencies
Laser treatment of varicose veins is well tolerated. Patients report rapid and long-term effects of therapy. The benefits are:
- minimally invasive;
- lack of seams;
- pain relief;
- local anesthesia;
- short recovery period.
In addition to laser therapy, early implementation, and continued adherence to medical recommendations, it prevents varicose veins from progressing.
Laser coagulation of leg varicose veins has several limitations. When planning your surgery, your doctor will gather a thorough history to identify possible contraindications. These include:
- general and local inflammatory processes in the acute stage;
- purulent foci at the site of the procedure;
- thrombosis and thrombophlebitis;
- pregnancy and lactation;
- arterial disease;
- the dilation of the veins in the legs has a diameter of more than 1 cm and their complex structure.
If these factors are identified, laser treatment will be replaced by alternative methods. Thereafter, when the risk factor is eliminated, the possibility of invasive intervention may be reconsidered.
Complications of the procedure, up to a short rise in temperature for a short time, manifest as pain and discomfort during bending of the knee.
Fever with a temperature rise above 38 degrees and sharp pain in the legs can be a sign of serious complications that require urgent hospitalization.
Another modern method is to treat varicose veins without surgery. It is most effective in the first three stages of the disease. But it is also used for advanced forms with trophic changes.
Phlebosclerosis helps to eliminate the lesion that prevents normal blood flow. The procedure involves artificial closure of the veins. To do this, drugs are injected into the diseased vessels of the legs, causing the venous walls to be destroyed. The operation involves the use of highly effective and low toxic agents.
How the procedure works
Preselected areas of affected veins are injected with anesthetics. The doctor then injects sclerosing drugs into the enlarged areas. The duration of the procedure is 30 minutes.
In the presence of multiple foci of varicose veins, sclerotherapy is performed in several stages, at least every weekend. At the end of the procedure, compression stockings are placed on the legs and it is recommended to walk at a leisurely pace for half an hour. Elastic bandages should be worn around the clock for up to 1 week. Then you have to switch to day wear for 6 months.
Contraindications and postoperative restrictions
Sclerotherapy for varicose veins is contraindicated in pregnant and lactating women. It is not used for deep thrombosis and venous ulcers.
In the post-surgery period, a visit to the spa and sauna takes approx. Prohibited for 2 months. Hot baths are also contraindicated. Weightlifting is only recommended for six months. After surgeries in the later stages of the varicose veins, it is recommended to use compression garments for life.
This method has recently become popular. Non-surgical treatment of lower limb varicose veins with radiofrequency radiation requires the use of expensive equipment. Therefore, the procedure is mainly performed by large vascular centers.
Progress of the procedure
Local anesthesia is performed after preliminary diagnostic and preparatory measures. After anesthesia, a catheter equipped with a radiofrequency device is inserted into a vein. When moving on the vessels of the legs, high temperatures cause the lumen of the vein to close.
The only discomfort for the patient is the injection of the anesthetic drug. The rest of the operation is painless.
Method of operation
Ablation or closure of the veins using radio frequency waves stops the movement of blood through the abnormal vessel. The vein sticks together and gradually dissolves. After the focus is blocked, the blood supply is not disturbed and occurs through the deeper veins.
Advantages and disadvantages
This method is one of the most effective. Experts note the long absence of relapses after this method was applied to the veins in the legs. Advantages of the procedure:
- local anesthesia;
- lack of pain;
- outpatient behavior;
- immediate effect.
Disadvantages include the high cost and the presence of the following contraindications:
- atherosclerosis of the vessels of the lower extremities;
- inflammatory processes in the legs.
There may be unique contraindications with the course of chronic diseases and the structural characteristics of the veins.
The method replaced extensive venous surgeries. The essence of the method is to remove the abnormal part of the vessel. But if this used to be done with skin incisions, now only a small puncture is needed. Through it, the affected vein is pulled out with a special hook. They are cut from healthy areas and the ends are sewn. The procedure is a minimally invasive method. After the procedure, it is recommended:
- do not go to the bath or take a hot bath;
- do not lift weights;
- wear elastic underwear.
Contraindications and consequences
Microflebectomy is not performed during pregnancy, thrombosis, and somatic diseases in the acute stage.
The main advantage of phlebectomy is the possibility of surgery with the complex structure of the veins in the leg and vasodilation greater than 10 mm.
Minimally invasive methods only eliminate the consequences of the disease, they do not affect the causes of varicose veins. Therefore, if risk factors persist, re-intervention may be required.